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Eliot

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Thomas Stearns Eliot war ein englischsprachiger Lyriker, Dramatiker und Kritiker, der als einer der bedeutendsten Vertreter der literarischen Moderne gilt. Im Jahr wurde er mit dem Literaturnobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Eliot studierte. Thomas Stearns Eliot (* September in St. Louis, Missouri, Vereinigte Staaten; † 4. Januar in London, England) war ein englischsprachiger Lyriker. Alles zum Jungennamen Eliot wie Bedeutung, Herkunft, Namenstag und Beliebtheit auf parketta.co Eliot ist ein elektrisch höhenverstellbarer Schreibtisch, für den unsere Designer mit internationalen Preisen ausgezeichnet wurden. About & Contact · ART · MUSIC · SHOP · Rubber Duck · exhibition, stencil · Unicorn Poo · drips, neon, series, serigraphy, stencil · Disco Kugel. print, screen print.

Eliot

Alles zum Jungennamen Eliot wie Bedeutung, Herkunft, Namenstag und Beliebtheit auf parketta.co Thomas Stearns Eliot war ein englischsprachiger Lyriker, Dramatiker und Kritiker, der als einer der bedeutendsten Vertreter der literarischen Moderne gilt. Im Jahr wurde er mit dem Literaturnobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Eliot studierte. Der Jungenname Eliot ♂ Herkunft, Bedeutung, Beliebtheit und soziales Prestige. Entdecke ähnliche Namen, die Schreibweise im Flaggenalphabet und vieles. Diesem Reifeprozess werden wir nun more info im Namen wiederspiegeln. Smart Technology. In diesem Buch Freifahrtschein Englisch Eliot Eliot ganz eigene, individuelle Geschichte, die speziell für ihn geschrieben wurde. Die Beliebtheit des Vornamens wird dabei durch den im jeweiligen Monat erreichten Rang auf Grundlage der abgegebenen Stimmen bestimmt. Ein Vorwurf, dem sich T. Lass Dich in unserer Galerie more info Heads up Schnitzelsemmel. Seine erste Station dort war Marburgwo er an einem dann https://parketta.co/free-online-casino-no-deposit-required/beste-spielothek-in-paterzell-finden.php Ferienkurs der Universität teilnehmen wollte. Und dann Eliot. Eliot macht mehr aus Deiner Zeit am Schreibtisch. Weitere Informationen zur SmartGenius-Vornamensstatistik. Prämiert mit dem Universal Designaward in alle Kategorien.

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Dabei begegnet er vielen interessanten Menschen, die alle auf unterschiedliche Art ihr Glück gefunden haben, und am Ende findet auch Eliot das Glück und zwar dort, wo er es ganz sicher nie wieder verlieren wird. Direkt beim Hersteller kaufen. Dabei ist aber entscheidend, dass die Rezeption eines Namens ganz wesentlich vom jeweiligen kulturellen Kontext abhängt: Insbesondere Vornamen, die in Sozialprestige Deutschland nicht sehr verbreitet sind, können in anderen Sprach- und Kulturräumen ganz anders wahrgenommen werden. Der Vorname Eliot in Österreich. Dein Tisch. Eliot macht mehr aus Deiner Zeit am Schreibtisch. Am populärsten war der Name bisher im Jahr

Eliot died of emphysema at his home in Kensington in London, on 4 January , [53] and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium.

In my end is my beginning. In , on the second anniversary of his death, Eliot was commemorated by the placement of a large stone in the floor of Poets' Corner in London's Westminster Abbey.

The apartment block where he died, No. For a poet of his stature, Eliot produced a relatively small number of poems.

He was aware of this even early in his career. He wrote to J. Woods, one of his former Harvard professors, "My reputation in London is built upon one small volume of verse, and is kept up by printing two or three more poems in a year.

The only thing that matters is that these should be perfect in their kind, so that each should be an event.

Typically, Eliot first published his poems individually in periodicals or in small books or pamphlets and then collected them in books.

His first collection was Prufrock and Other Observations These had the same poems in a different order except that "Ode" in the British edition was replaced with "Hysteria" in the American edition.

From then on, he updated this work as Collected Poems. Exceptions are Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats , a collection of light verse; Poems Written in Early Youth , posthumously published in and consisting mainly of poems published between and in The Harvard Advocate , and Inventions of the March Hare: Poems — , material Eliot never intended to have published, which appeared posthumously in During an interview in , Eliot said of his nationality and its role in his work: "I'd say that my poetry has obviously more in common with my distinguished contemporaries in America than with anything written in my generation in England.

That I'm sure of. It wouldn't be what it is, and I imagine it wouldn't be so good; putting it as modestly as I can, it wouldn't be what it is if I'd been born in England, and it wouldn't be what it is if I'd stayed in America.

It's a combination of things. But in its sources, in its emotional springs, it comes from America. Cleo McNelly Kearns notes in her biography that Eliot was deeply influenced by Indic traditions, notably the Upanishads.

From the Sanskrit ending of The Waste Land to the "What Krishna meant" section of Four Quartets shows how much Indic religions and more specifically Hinduism made up his philosophical basic for his thought process.

He himself wrote in his essay on W. Yeats: "The kind of poetry that I needed to teach me the use of my own voice did not exist in English at all; it was only to be found in French.

Alfred Prufrock". Its now-famous opening lines, comparing the evening sky to "a patient etherised upon a table", were considered shocking and offensive, especially at a time when Georgian Poetry was hailed for its derivations of the nineteenth century Romantic Poets.

The poem's structure was heavily influenced by Eliot's extensive reading of Dante and refers to a number of literary works, including Hamlet and those of the French Symbolists.

Eliot is surely of the very smallest importance to anyone, even to himself. They certainly have no relation to poetry. Eliot's dedication to il miglior fabbro "the better craftsman" refers to Ezra Pound's significant hand in editing and reshaping the poem from a longer Eliot manuscript to the shortened version that appears in publication.

It was composed during a period of personal difficulty for Eliot—his marriage was failing, and both he and Vivienne were suffering from nervous disorders.

Before the poem's publication as a book in December , Eliot distanced himself from its vision of despair.

On 15 November , he wrote to Richard Aldington , saying, "As for The Waste Land , that is a thing of the past so far as I am concerned and I am now feeling toward a new form and style.

I may have expressed for them their own illusion of being disillusioned, but that did not form part of my intention" [68].

The poem is known for its obscure nature—its slippage between satire and prophecy; its abrupt changes of speaker, location, and time.

This structural complexity is one of the reasons why the poem has become a touchstone of modern literature , a poetic counterpart to a novel published in the same year, James Joyce 's Ulysses.

Among its best-known phrases are "April is the cruellest month", "I will show you fear in a handful of dust" and " Shantih shantih shantih ".

The Sanskrit mantra ends the poem. For the critic Edmund Wilson , it marked "The nadir of the phase of despair and desolation given such effective expression in "The Waste Land".

Similar to Eliot's other works, its themes are overlapping and fragmentary. Post-war Europe under the Treaty of Versailles which Eliot despised , the difficulty of hope and religious conversion, Eliot's failed marriage.

Published in , it deals with the struggle that ensues when a person who has lacked faith acquires it. Sometimes referred to as Eliot's "conversion poem", it is richly but ambiguously allusive, and deals with the aspiration to move from spiritual barrenness to hope for human salvation.

Eliot's style of writing in "Ash-Wednesday" showed a marked shift from the poetry he had written prior to his conversion, and his post-conversion style continued in a similar vein.

His style became less ironic, and the poems were no longer populated by multiple characters in dialogue. Eliot's subject matter also became more focused on his spiritual concerns and his Christian faith.

Many critics were particularly enthusiastic about "Ash-Wednesday". Edwin Muir maintained that it is one of the most moving poems Eliot wrote, and perhaps the "most perfect", though it was not well received by everyone.

The poem's groundwork of orthodox Christianity discomfited many of the more secular literati. This first edition had an illustration of the author on the cover.

In , the composer Alan Rawsthorne set six of the poems for speaker and orchestra in a work titled Practical Cats.

After Eliot's death, the book was adapted as the basis of the musical Cats by Andrew Lloyd Webber , first produced in London's West End in and opening on Broadway the following year.

Eliot regarded Four Quartets as his masterpiece, and it is the work that led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Each has five sections. Although they resist easy characterisation, each poem includes meditations on the nature of time in some important respect— theological , historical, physical—and its relation to the human condition.

Each poem is associated with one of the four classical elements , respectively: air, earth, water, and fire.

In the final section, the narrator contemplates the arts "words" and "music" as they relate to time.

Out of darkness, Eliot offers a solution: "I said to my soul, be still, and wait without hope. Eliot's experiences as an air raid warden in the Blitz power the poem, and he imagines meeting Dante during the German bombing.

The Four Quartets cannot be understood without reference to Christian thought, traditions, and history. Eliot draws upon the theology, art, symbolism and language of such figures as Dante, and mystics St.

John of the Cross and Julian of Norwich. The "deeper communion" sought in "East Coker", the "hints and whispers of children, the sickness that must grow worse to find healing", and the exploration which inevitably leads us home all point to the pilgrim's path along the road of sanctification.

With the important exception of Four Quartets , Eliot directed much of his creative energies after Ash Wednesday to writing plays in verse, mostly comedies or plays with redemptive endings.

In a lecture he said "Every poet would like, I fancy, to be able to think that he had some direct social utility.

He would like to be something of a popular entertainer and be able to think his own thoughts behind a tragic or a comic mask.

He would like to convey the pleasures of poetry, not only to a larger audience but to larger groups of people collectively; and the theatre is the best place in which to do it.

After The Waste Land , he wrote that he was "now feeling toward a new form and style". One project he had in mind was writing a play in verse, using some of the rhythms of early jazz.

The play featured "Sweeney", a character who had appeared in a number of his poems. Although Eliot did not finish the play, he did publish two scenes from the piece.

These scenes, titled Fragment of a Prologue and Fragment of an Agon , were published together in as Sweeney Agonistes.

Although Eliot noted that this was not intended to be a one-act play, it is sometimes performed as one. A pageant play by Eliot called The Rock was performed in for the benefit of churches in the Diocese of London.

Much of it was a collaborative effort; Eliot accepted credit only for the authorship of one scene and the choruses.

Martin Browne for the production of The Rock , and later commissioned Eliot to write another play for the Canterbury Festival in This one, Murder in the Cathedral , concerning the death of the martyr, Thomas Becket , was more under Eliot's control.

Eliot biographer Peter Ackroyd comments that "for [Eliot], Murder in the Cathedral and succeeding verse plays offered a double advantage; it allowed him to practice poetry but it also offered a convenient home for his religious sensibility.

Martin Browne [78]. Regarding his method of playwriting, Eliot explained, "If I set out to write a play, I start by an act of choice. I settle upon a particular emotional situation, out of which characters and a plot will emerge.

And then lines of poetry may come into being: not from the original impulse but from a secondary stimulation of the unconscious mind.

Eliot made significant contributions to the field of literary criticism , strongly influencing the school of New Criticism. He was somewhat self-deprecating and minimising of his work and once said his criticism was merely a "by-product" of his "private poetry-workshop", but the critic William Empson once said, "I do not know for certain how much of my own mind [Eliot] invented, let alone how much of it is a reaction against him or indeed a consequence of misreading him.

He is a very penetrating influence, perhaps not unlike the east wind. In his critical essay " Tradition and the Individual Talent ", Eliot argues that art must be understood not in a vacuum, but in the context of previous pieces of art.

Eliot himself employed this concept on many of his works, especially on his long-poem The Waste Land. Also important to New Criticism was the idea—as articulated in Eliot's essay " Hamlet and His Problems "—of an " objective correlative ", which posits a connection among the words of the text and events, states of mind, and experiences.

More generally, New Critics took a cue from Eliot in regard to his "'classical' ideals and his religious thought; his attention to the poetry and drama of the early seventeenth century; his deprecation of the Romantics, especially Shelley ; his proposition that good poems constitute 'not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion'; and his insistence that 'poets Eliot's essays were a major factor in the revival of interest in the metaphysical poets.

Eliot particularly praised the metaphysical poets' ability to show experience as both psychological and sensual, while at the same time infusing this portrayal with—in Eliot's view—wit and uniqueness.

Eliot's essay "The Metaphysical Poets", along with giving new significance and attention to metaphysical poetry, introduced his now well-known definition of "unified sensibility", which is considered by some to mean the same thing as the term "metaphysical".

His poem The Waste Land [88] also can be better understood in light of his work as a critic.

He had argued that a poet must write "programmatic criticism", that is, a poet should write to advance his own interests rather than to advance "historical scholarship".

Viewed from Eliot's critical lens, The Waste Land likely shows his personal despair about World War I rather than an objective historical understanding of it.

Late in his career, Eliot focused much of his creative energy on writing for the theatre; some of his earlier critical writing, in essays such as "Poetry and Drama", [90] "Hamlet and his Problems", [84] and "The Possibility of a Poetic Drama", [91] focused on the aesthetics of writing drama in verse.

Alfred Prufrock", "Portrait of a Lady", "La Figlia Che Piange", "Preludes", and "Rhapsody on a Windy Night" had "[an] effect [that] was both unique and compelling, and their assurance staggered [Eliot's] contemporaries who were privileged to read them in manuscript.

The wholeness is there, from the very beginning. The initial critical response to Eliot's The Waste Land was mixed. Bush notes that the piece was at first correctly perceived as a work of jazz-like syncopation—and, like s jazz , essentially iconoclastic.

Edmund Wilson, being one of the critics who praised Eliot, called him "one of our only authentic poets". In regard to The Waste Land , Wilson admits its flaws "its lack of structural unity" , but concluded, "I doubt whether there is a single other poem of equal length by a contemporary American which displays so high and so varied a mastery of English verse.

Charles Powell was negative in his criticism of Eliot, calling his poems incomprehensible. For instance, though Ransom negatively criticised The Waste Land for its "extreme disconnection", Ransom was not completely condemnatory of Eliot's work and admitted that Eliot was a talented poet.

Addressing some of the common criticisms directed against The Waste Land at the time, Gilbert Seldes stated, "It seems at first sight remarkably disconnected and confused Eliot's reputation as a poet, as well as his influence in the academy, peaked following the publication of The Four Quartets.

In an essay on Eliot published in , the writer Cynthia Ozick refers to this peak of influence from the s through the early s as "the Age of Eliot" when Eliot "seemed pure zenith, a colossus, nothing less than a permanent luminary, fixed in the firmament like the sun and the moon".

As Eliot's conservative religious and political convictions began to seem less congenial in the postwar world, other readers reacted with suspicion to his assertions of authority, obvious in Four Quartets and implicit in the earlier poetry.

The result, fueled by intermittent rediscovery of Eliot's occasional anti-Semitic rhetoric, has been a progressive downward revision of his once towering reputation.

Bush also notes that Eliot's reputation "slipped" significantly further after his death. He writes, "Sometimes regarded as too academic William Carlos Williams 's view , Eliot was also frequently criticized for a deadening neoclassicism as he himself—perhaps just as unfairly—had criticized Milton.

However, the multifarious tributes from practicing poets of many schools published during his centenary in was a strong indication of the intimidating continued presence of his poetic voice.

Although Eliot's poetry is not as influential as it once was, notable literary scholars, like Harold Bloom [98] and Stephen Greenblatt , [99] still acknowledge that Eliot's poetry is central to the literary English canon.

For instance, the editors of The Norton Anthology of English Literature write, "There is no disagreement on [Eliot's] importance as one of the great renovators of the English poetry dialect, whose influence on a whole generation of poets, critics, and intellectuals generally was enormous.

The depiction of Jews in some of Eliot's poems has led several critics to accuse him of anti-Semitism. This case has been presented most forcefully in a study by Anthony Julius : T.

Eliot, Anti-Semitism, and Literary Form In this poem, Eliot wrote, "The rats are underneath the piles.

It reaches out like a clear signal to the reader. In a series of lectures delivered at the University of Virginia in , published under the title After Strange Gods: A Primer of Modern Heresy , Eliot wrote of societal tradition and coherence, "What is still more important [than cultural homogeneity] is unity of religious background, and reasons of race and religion combine to make any large number of free-thinking Jews undesirable.

Craig Raine , in his books In Defence of T. Eliot and T. Eliot , sought to defend Eliot from the charge of anti-Semitism.

Reviewing the book, Paul Dean stated that he was not convinced by Raine's argument. Nevertheless, he concluded, "Ultimately, as both Raine and, to do him justice, Julius insist, however much Eliot may have been compromised as a person, as we all are in our several ways, his greatness as a poet remains.

Eliot's well-earned reputation [as a poet] is established beyond all doubt, and making him out to be as unflawed as the Archangel Gabriel does him no favours.

Below is a partial list of honours and awards received by Eliot or bestowed or created in his honour. These honours are displayed in order of precedence based on Eliot's nationality and rules of protocol, not awarding date.

Source: "T. Eliot Bibliography". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 25 February From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot disambiguation.

US-born British poet Eliot in by Lady Ottoline Morrell. Poet essayist playwright publisher critic. Vivienne Haigh-Wood m.

Main article: The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. Main article: The Waste Land. Main article: Ash Wednesday poem. Main article: Four Quartets.

Main article: T. Eliot bibliography. Carnes eds , American National Biography. In Bloom, Harold ed. Bloom's Biocritiques.

Broomall: Chelsea House Publishing. Retrieved 7 November Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 26 April Eliot" , Nobel Foundation, taken from Frenz, Horst ed.

Nobel Lectures, Literature — Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, Retrieved 6 March Eliot: A Short Biography. December Eliot: A Short Biography.

London: Haus Publishing. Eliot, A Memoir. London: Garnstone Limited. Louis: Washington University Press, , p.

The Art of Poetry No. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. New York. Eliot: La aventura sin fin ensayos. Barcelona, Lumen. ISBN , p. Alianza Editorial.

Madrid, Consultado el 22 de enero de Alianza Editorial - Madrid, ISBN p. Cuatro cuartetos de T.

Derek Harris. Hulme , lasted through his life. In the academic year —10 he was an assistant in philosophy at Harvard.

From to he was back at Harvard, reading Indian philosophy and studying Sanskrit. In Eliot met and began a close association with the American poet Ezra Pound.

Eliot was to pursue four careers: editor, dramatist, literary critic, and philosophical poet. He was probably the most erudite poet of his time in the English language.

It represented a break with the immediate past as radical as that of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth in Lyrical Ballads The significance of the revolution is still disputed, but the striking similarity to the Romantic revolution of Coleridge and Wordsworth is obvious: Eliot and Pound, like their 18th-century counterparts, set about reforming poetic diction.

Meanwhile, he was also a prolific reviewer and essayist in both literary criticism and technical philosophy. With the publication in of his poem The Waste Land , Eliot won an international reputation.

The Waste Land expresses with great power the disenchantment, disillusionment, and disgust of the period after World War I.

In a series of vignettes , loosely linked by the legend of the search for the Grail , it portrays a sterile world of panicky fears and barren lusts, and of human beings waiting for some sign or promise of redemption.

This scholarly supplement distracted some readers and critics from perceiving the true originality of the poem, which lay rather in its rendering of the universal human predicament of man desiring salvation , and in its manipulation of language, than in its range of literary references.

In his earlier poems Eliot had shown himself to be a master of the poetic phrase. The Waste Land showed him to be, in addition, a metrist of great virtuosity, capable of astonishing modulations ranging from the sublime to the conversational.

But The Waste Land is not a simple contrast of the heroic past with the degraded present; it is, rather, a timeless simultaneous awareness of moral grandeur and moral evil.

The poet writing in English may therefore make his own tradition by using materials from any past period, in any language. In these essays he effects a new historical perspective on the hierarchy of English poetry, putting at the top Donne and other Metaphysical poets of the 17th century and lowering poets of the 18th and 19th centuries.

This change seems to him to consist in a loss of the union of thought and feeling.

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The Waste Land expresses with great power the disenchantment, disillusionment, and disgust of the period after World War I. In a series of vignettes , loosely linked by the legend of the search for the Grail , it portrays a sterile world of panicky fears and barren lusts, and of human beings waiting for some sign or promise of redemption.

This scholarly supplement distracted some readers and critics from perceiving the true originality of the poem, which lay rather in its rendering of the universal human predicament of man desiring salvation , and in its manipulation of language, than in its range of literary references.

In his earlier poems Eliot had shown himself to be a master of the poetic phrase. The Waste Land showed him to be, in addition, a metrist of great virtuosity, capable of astonishing modulations ranging from the sublime to the conversational.

But The Waste Land is not a simple contrast of the heroic past with the degraded present; it is, rather, a timeless simultaneous awareness of moral grandeur and moral evil.

The poet writing in English may therefore make his own tradition by using materials from any past period, in any language.

In these essays he effects a new historical perspective on the hierarchy of English poetry, putting at the top Donne and other Metaphysical poets of the 17th century and lowering poets of the 18th and 19th centuries.

This change seems to him to consist in a loss of the union of thought and feeling. The phrase has been attacked, yet the historical fact that gave rise to it cannot be denied, and with the poetry of Eliot and Pound it had a strong influence in reviving interest in certain 17th-century poets.

Shortly before this his interests had broadened into theology and sociology; three short books, or long essays, were the result: Thoughts After Lambeth , The Idea of a Christian Society , and Notes Towards the Definition of Culture These book-essays, along with his Dante , an indubitable masterpiece, broadened the base of literature into theology and philosophy: whether a work is poetry must be decided by literary standards; whether it is great poetry must be decided by standards higher than the literary.

The great essay on Dante appeared two years after Eliot was confirmed in the Church of England ; in that year he also became a British subject.

The first long poem after his conversion was Ash Wednesday , a religious meditation in a style entirely different from that of any of the earlier poems.

Ash Wednesday expresses the pangs and the strain involved in the acceptance of religious belief and religious discipline.

This and subsequent poems were written in a more relaxed, musical, and meditative style than his earlier works, in which the dramatic element had been stronger than the lyrical.

Ash Wednesday was not well received in an era that held that poetry, though autonomous , is strictly secular in its outlook; it was misinterpreted by some critics as an expression of personal disillusion.

Article Media. Info Print Print. As he was often isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the young boy immediately became obsessed with books, favouring tales of savage life, the Wild West, or Mark Twain 's thrill-seeking Tom Sawyer.

Louis affected me more deeply than any other environment has ever done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river , which is incommunicable to those people who have not.

I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London.

He began to write poetry when he was 14 under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald 's translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.

He said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them. The last mentioned story significantly reflects his exploration of the Igorot Village while visiting the World's Fair of St.

Eliot lived in St. Louis, Missouri for the first 16 years of his life at the house on Locust St. After going away to school in , he only returned to St.

Louis for vacations and visits. Despite moving away from the city, Eliot wrote to a friend that the "Missouri and the Mississippi have made a deeper impression on me than any other part of the world.

He studied philosophy at Harvard College from to , earning a B. His B. English Literature. After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard from to , Eliot moved to Paris where, from to , he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne.

He first visited Marburg , Germany, where he planned to take a summer programme, but when the First World War broke out he went to Oxford instead.

At the time so many American students attended Merton that the Junior Common Room proposed a motion "that this society abhors the Americanization of Oxford".

It was defeated by two votes after Eliot reminded the students how much they owed American culture.

Eliot wrote to Conrad Aiken on New Year's Eve "I hate university towns and university people, who are the same everywhere, with pregnant wives, sprawling children, many books and hideous pictures on the walls Oxford is very pretty, but I don't like to be dead.

This city had a monumental and life-altering effect on Eliot for several reasons, the most significant of which was his introduction to the influential American literary figure Ezra Pound.

A connection through Aiken resulted in an arranged meeting and on 22 September , Eliot paid a visit to Pound's flat. Pound instantly deemed Eliot "worth watching" and was crucial to Eliot's beginning career as a poet, as he is credited with promoting Eliot through social events and literary gatherings.

Thus, according to biographer John Worthen, during his time in England Eliot "was seeing as little of Oxford as possible".

He was instead spending long periods of time in London, in the company of Ezra Pound and "some of the modern artists whom the war has so far spared It was Pound who helped most, introducing him everywhere.

In he taught English at Birkbeck, University of London. By , he had completed a doctoral dissertation for Harvard on "Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy of F.

Bradley ", but he failed to return for the viva voce exam. Before leaving the US, Eliot had told Emily Hale that he was in love with her; he exchanged letters with her from Oxford during and but they did not meet again until They were married at Hampstead Register Office on 26 June After a short visit alone to his family in the United States, Eliot returned to London and took several teaching jobs, such as lecturing at Birkbeck College , University of London.

The philosopher Bertrand Russell took an interest in Vivienne while the newlyweds stayed in his flat. Some scholars have suggested that she and Russell had an affair, but the allegations were never confirmed.

The marriage was markedly unhappy, in part because of Vivienne's health problems. In a letter addressed to Ezra Pound, she covers an extensive list of her symptoms, which included a habitually high temperature, fatigue , insomnia , migraines , and colitis.

The couple formally separated in and in Vivienne's brother, Maurice, had her committed to a mental hospital, against her will, where she remained until her death of heart disease in In a private paper written in his sixties, Eliot confessed: "I came to persuade myself that I was in love with Vivienne simply because I wanted to burn my boats and commit myself to staying in England.

And she persuaded herself also under the influence of [Ezra] Pound that she would save the poet by keeping him in England.

To her, the marriage brought no happiness. To me, it brought the state of mind out of which came The Waste Land.

After leaving Merton, Eliot worked as a schoolteacher, most notably at Highgate School , a private school in London, where he taught French and Latin—his students included the young John Betjeman.

To earn extra money, he wrote book reviews and lectured at evening extension courses at the University College London, and Oxford.

In , he took a position at Lloyds Bank in London, working on foreign accounts. Eliot said he found Joyce arrogant—Joyce doubted Eliot's ability as a poet at the time—but the two soon became friends, with Eliot visiting Joyce whenever he was in Paris.

Charles Whibley recommended T. Eliot to Geoffrey Faber. Auden , Stephen Spender , and Ted Hughes. On 29 June , Eliot converted to Anglicanism from Unitarianism , and in November that year he took British citizenship.

One of Eliot's biographers, Peter Ackroyd , commented that "the purposes of [Eliot's conversion] were two-fold.

One: the Church of England offered Eliot some hope for himself, and I think Eliot needed some resting place. But secondly, it attached Eliot to the English community and English culture.

By , Eliot had been contemplating a separation from his wife for some time. When Harvard offered him the Charles Eliot Norton professorship for the — academic year, he accepted and left Vivienne in England.

Upon his return, he arranged for a formal separation from her, avoiding all but one meeting with her between his leaving for America in and her death in Vivienne was committed to the Northumberland House mental hospital, Stoke Newington , in , and remained there until she died.

Although Eliot was still legally her husband, he never visited her. Eliot later destroyed Hale's letters to him, but Hale donated Eliot's to Princeton University Library where they were sealed until From to Eliot's public companion was Mary Trevelyan of London University, who wanted to marry him and left a detailed memoir.

When Eliot and Hayward separated their household in , Hayward retained his collection of Eliot's papers, which he bequeathed to King's College, Cambridge , in In contrast to his first marriage, Eliot knew Fletcher well, as she had been his secretary at Faber and Faber since August They kept their wedding secret; the ceremony was held in St.

Eliot had no children with either of his wives. In the early s, by then in failing health, Eliot worked as an editor for the Wesleyan University Press , seeking new poets in Europe for publication.

After Eliot's death, Valerie dedicated her time to preserving his legacy, by editing and annotating The Letters of T. Eliot and a facsimile of the draft of The Waste Land.

Eliot died of emphysema at his home in Kensington in London, on 4 January , [53] and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium. In my end is my beginning.

In , on the second anniversary of his death, Eliot was commemorated by the placement of a large stone in the floor of Poets' Corner in London's Westminster Abbey.

The apartment block where he died, No. For a poet of his stature, Eliot produced a relatively small number of poems. He was aware of this even early in his career.

He wrote to J. Woods, one of his former Harvard professors, "My reputation in London is built upon one small volume of verse, and is kept up by printing two or three more poems in a year.

The only thing that matters is that these should be perfect in their kind, so that each should be an event.

Typically, Eliot first published his poems individually in periodicals or in small books or pamphlets and then collected them in books.

His first collection was Prufrock and Other Observations These had the same poems in a different order except that "Ode" in the British edition was replaced with "Hysteria" in the American edition.

From then on, he updated this work as Collected Poems. Exceptions are Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats , a collection of light verse; Poems Written in Early Youth , posthumously published in and consisting mainly of poems published between and in The Harvard Advocate , and Inventions of the March Hare: Poems — , material Eliot never intended to have published, which appeared posthumously in During an interview in , Eliot said of his nationality and its role in his work: "I'd say that my poetry has obviously more in common with my distinguished contemporaries in America than with anything written in my generation in England.

That I'm sure of. It wouldn't be what it is, and I imagine it wouldn't be so good; putting it as modestly as I can, it wouldn't be what it is if I'd been born in England, and it wouldn't be what it is if I'd stayed in America.

It's a combination of things. But in its sources, in its emotional springs, it comes from America. Cleo McNelly Kearns notes in her biography that Eliot was deeply influenced by Indic traditions, notably the Upanishads.

From the Sanskrit ending of The Waste Land to the "What Krishna meant" section of Four Quartets shows how much Indic religions and more specifically Hinduism made up his philosophical basic for his thought process.

He himself wrote in his essay on W. Yeats: "The kind of poetry that I needed to teach me the use of my own voice did not exist in English at all; it was only to be found in French.

Alfred Prufrock". Its now-famous opening lines, comparing the evening sky to "a patient etherised upon a table", were considered shocking and offensive, especially at a time when Georgian Poetry was hailed for its derivations of the nineteenth century Romantic Poets.

The poem's structure was heavily influenced by Eliot's extensive reading of Dante and refers to a number of literary works, including Hamlet and those of the French Symbolists.

Eliot is surely of the very smallest importance to anyone, even to himself. They certainly have no relation to poetry. Eliot's dedication to il miglior fabbro "the better craftsman" refers to Ezra Pound's significant hand in editing and reshaping the poem from a longer Eliot manuscript to the shortened version that appears in publication.

It was composed during a period of personal difficulty for Eliot—his marriage was failing, and both he and Vivienne were suffering from nervous disorders.

Before the poem's publication as a book in December , Eliot distanced himself from its vision of despair.

On 15 November , he wrote to Richard Aldington , saying, "As for The Waste Land , that is a thing of the past so far as I am concerned and I am now feeling toward a new form and style.

I may have expressed for them their own illusion of being disillusioned, but that did not form part of my intention" [68].

The poem is known for its obscure nature—its slippage between satire and prophecy; its abrupt changes of speaker, location, and time.

This structural complexity is one of the reasons why the poem has become a touchstone of modern literature , a poetic counterpart to a novel published in the same year, James Joyce 's Ulysses.

Among its best-known phrases are "April is the cruellest month", "I will show you fear in a handful of dust" and " Shantih shantih shantih ".

The Sanskrit mantra ends the poem. For the critic Edmund Wilson , it marked "The nadir of the phase of despair and desolation given such effective expression in "The Waste Land".

Similar to Eliot's other works, its themes are overlapping and fragmentary. Post-war Europe under the Treaty of Versailles which Eliot despised , the difficulty of hope and religious conversion, Eliot's failed marriage.

Published in , it deals with the struggle that ensues when a person who has lacked faith acquires it. Sometimes referred to as Eliot's "conversion poem", it is richly but ambiguously allusive, and deals with the aspiration to move from spiritual barrenness to hope for human salvation.

Eliot's style of writing in "Ash-Wednesday" showed a marked shift from the poetry he had written prior to his conversion, and his post-conversion style continued in a similar vein.

His style became less ironic, and the poems were no longer populated by multiple characters in dialogue.

Eliot's subject matter also became more focused on his spiritual concerns and his Christian faith. Many critics were particularly enthusiastic about "Ash-Wednesday".

Edwin Muir maintained that it is one of the most moving poems Eliot wrote, and perhaps the "most perfect", though it was not well received by everyone.

The poem's groundwork of orthodox Christianity discomfited many of the more secular literati.

This first edition had an illustration of the author on the cover. In , the composer Alan Rawsthorne set six of the poems for speaker and orchestra in a work titled Practical Cats.

After Eliot's death, the book was adapted as the basis of the musical Cats by Andrew Lloyd Webber , first produced in London's West End in and opening on Broadway the following year.

Eliot regarded Four Quartets as his masterpiece, and it is the work that led to his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Each has five sections. Although they resist easy characterisation, each poem includes meditations on the nature of time in some important respect— theological , historical, physical—and its relation to the human condition.

Each poem is associated with one of the four classical elements , respectively: air, earth, water, and fire.

In the final section, the narrator contemplates the arts "words" and "music" as they relate to time. Out of darkness, Eliot offers a solution: "I said to my soul, be still, and wait without hope.

Eliot's experiences as an air raid warden in the Blitz power the poem, and he imagines meeting Dante during the German bombing. The Four Quartets cannot be understood without reference to Christian thought, traditions, and history.

Eliot draws upon the theology, art, symbolism and language of such figures as Dante, and mystics St. John of the Cross and Julian of Norwich.

The "deeper communion" sought in "East Coker", the "hints and whispers of children, the sickness that must grow worse to find healing", and the exploration which inevitably leads us home all point to the pilgrim's path along the road of sanctification.

With the important exception of Four Quartets , Eliot directed much of his creative energies after Ash Wednesday to writing plays in verse, mostly comedies or plays with redemptive endings.

In a lecture he said "Every poet would like, I fancy, to be able to think that he had some direct social utility. He would like to be something of a popular entertainer and be able to think his own thoughts behind a tragic or a comic mask.

He would like to convey the pleasures of poetry, not only to a larger audience but to larger groups of people collectively; and the theatre is the best place in which to do it.

After The Waste Land , he wrote that he was "now feeling toward a new form and style". One project he had in mind was writing a play in verse, using some of the rhythms of early jazz.

The play featured "Sweeney", a character who had appeared in a number of his poems. Although Eliot did not finish the play, he did publish two scenes from the piece.

These scenes, titled Fragment of a Prologue and Fragment of an Agon , were published together in as Sweeney Agonistes.

Although Eliot noted that this was not intended to be a one-act play, it is sometimes performed as one. A pageant play by Eliot called The Rock was performed in for the benefit of churches in the Diocese of London.

Much of it was a collaborative effort; Eliot accepted credit only for the authorship of one scene and the choruses.

Martin Browne for the production of The Rock , and later commissioned Eliot to write another play for the Canterbury Festival in This one, Murder in the Cathedral , concerning the death of the martyr, Thomas Becket , was more under Eliot's control.

Eliot biographer Peter Ackroyd comments that "for [Eliot], Murder in the Cathedral and succeeding verse plays offered a double advantage; it allowed him to practice poetry but it also offered a convenient home for his religious sensibility.

Martin Browne [78]. Regarding his method of playwriting, Eliot explained, "If I set out to write a play, I start by an act of choice.

I settle upon a particular emotional situation, out of which characters and a plot will emerge. And then lines of poetry may come into being: not from the original impulse but from a secondary stimulation of the unconscious mind.

Eliot made significant contributions to the field of literary criticism , strongly influencing the school of New Criticism.

He was somewhat self-deprecating and minimising of his work and once said his criticism was merely a "by-product" of his "private poetry-workshop", but the critic William Empson once said, "I do not know for certain how much of my own mind [Eliot] invented, let alone how much of it is a reaction against him or indeed a consequence of misreading him.

He is a very penetrating influence, perhaps not unlike the east wind. In his critical essay " Tradition and the Individual Talent ", Eliot argues that art must be understood not in a vacuum, but in the context of previous pieces of art.

Eliot himself employed this concept on many of his works, especially on his long-poem The Waste Land. Also important to New Criticism was the idea—as articulated in Eliot's essay " Hamlet and His Problems "—of an " objective correlative ", which posits a connection among the words of the text and events, states of mind, and experiences.

More generally, New Critics took a cue from Eliot in regard to his "'classical' ideals and his religious thought; his attention to the poetry and drama of the early seventeenth century; his deprecation of the Romantics, especially Shelley ; his proposition that good poems constitute 'not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion'; and his insistence that 'poets Eliot: La aventura sin fin ensayos.

Barcelona, Lumen. ISBN , p. Alianza Editorial. Madrid, Consultado el 22 de enero de Alianza Editorial - Madrid, ISBN p.

Cuatro cuartetos de T. Derek Harris. Taurus, Madrid Obras completas , tomo II. Cervantes, Barcelona Eliot Textos: Autor:T.

Datos: Q Multimedia: T. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. Thomas Stearns Eliot. Enfisema pulmonar.

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